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​​Detailed Framework Of Toronto Buffing Inc's 3-Stage Paint Correction

The 3-stage paint correction is a time-tried and tested method of removing defects from a painted surfaces. The 3 stages ensures efficient and thorough defect removal, and removes the chance of hologramming (machine induced swirl marks). The 3 stages refer to 3 separate stages of paint machining. We do not factor preparation, nor the final protection into these 3 stages. This is what makes this process a true 3-Stage Paint Correction.


Preparation or "Prep":










Before any paint correction, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the paint. Any contamination left behind may cause swirl marks during the buffing process. First, we usually use a chemical to strip the loose dirt and debris from the paint, via foam cannon. We then proceed to perform a very careful two bucket hand wash. The vehicle is then purged with compressed air, then dried with a premium microfiber towel. Next, we assess the level of contamination, and use the according grade of claybar. The claybar step in preparation removes stubborn contaminants that have adhered in the paint. The vehicle is then rewashed via touchless method, then purged and dried. We proceed to apply masking tape to any sensitive areas such as trim pieces, and emblems. The vehicle's paint is now ready to be assessed and machined.


Stage 1: Heavy Defect Removal (Cutting/Buffing)













This is the first step of actual paint correction at Toronto Buffing. Depending on the level of defects, we will use one of two types of machines: a rotary or dual action polisher. Rotary machines are used to remove heavy defects such as deep scratches and swirl marks. A dual action polisher can be used to remove mild to moderate defects. Each respective machine is usually paired with a heavy cut foam or wool pad in this step. Usually, we use a heavy cut compound in this step, depending on paint condition.











We proceed to work a small area, and monitor improvement of paint clarity(commonly known as a test section). Once desired result is achieved, we proceed to cut the entire vehicle, working one small section at a time. During this step, it is common that the vehicle will get dusty from the “cutting action”. After the cut is complete, the vehicle is washed via touchless method, then purged and dried.

Now is the time to apply any necessary paint touch ups on stone chips etc.



Stage 2: Paint Refinement
In this step, the goal is to bring the paint as close to perfection as possible. The more thoroughly this step is performed, the easier the last step will be. This step is usually performed with a dual action polisher paired with a medium cut pad & compound or polish. We work a small section at a time to confirm proper pad and compound selection. Once desired results are achieved on the test section, we continue to refine the rest of the panels. If the vehicle gets dusty during this step, proceed to rewash.













Stage 3: Final Polish or "Jeweling"
In this final paint correction step, we polish or “jewel” the paint. This is done in order to improve the gloss and clarity of the paint. We use a finishing foam pad with a fine polish, paired with a dual action polisher, working a panel at a time. After the final polish is complete, we then reinspect the paint, ensuring no polishing residue remains. This will result in what is known as your "Last Stage Product" , or LSP for short.


Protection "Last Stage Product"

In this stage, we attempt to put a form of protection on your freshly corrected paint. These range from 30 day protection sealants, to lifetime ceramic coatings. Whatever your needs, you will always leave with some form of protection. Depending on customer needs, and budget, we proceed to apply protection to all exterior painted panels. After the protection is applied, the vehicle is then pulled outside for a thorough inspection. Depending on the sealant, the vehicle may have to be kept indoors for the coating to cure.



















The vehicle is now ready for pickup!

Total work time can vary from 8 hours to 30+ hours, depending on paint condition. The 3-stage process usually brings your paint to 95% it's full potential. This process can vary!


Note some vehicles will require substantial chip repairs. The process can be found here:

Chip Repair .


Note some vehicles will require individual scratch repairs rather than a complete 3-stage process. This process can be viewed here: 

Scratch Repair.


Information about Ceramic Coatings can be found here:

​Ceramic Coatings.

Toronto Buffing Inc.

555 North Rivermede Rd.
Vaughan Ontario
​L4K4G8

This is the result after the second stage of our process. The panel is almost completely defect free. Small traces of repair remain, known as micromarring. These defects are difficult to capture on camera.

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For the machine polishing stages, we will use this recently completed Audi as our example. This is the paint surface fully cleaned, ready for machining.

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This is the result after heavy cutting on the Audi A6. Note there are many traces of repair still showing. Think of this as a "rough draft" in the paint correction process.

Toronto Buffing Inc.

555 North Rivermede Rd.
Vaughan Ontario
​L4K4G8

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Ceramic Coatings and Ceramic Pro

Toronto Buffing Inc: Buffing, Polishing & Paint Correction Experts

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Phone:647-985-8630

Email:​​info@torontobuffing.COM